Once state-of-the-art mental healthcare facilities, Kirkbride buildings have long been relics of an obsolete therapeutic method known as Moral Treatment. In the latter half of the 19th century, these massive structures were conceived as ideal sanctuaries for the mentally ill and as an active participent in their recovery. Careful attention was given to every detail of their design to promote a healthy environment and convey a sense of respectable decorum. Placed in secluded areas within expansive grounds, many of these insane asylums seemed almost palace-like from the outside. But growing populations and insufficient funding led to unfortunate conditions, spoiling their idealistic promise.
Within decades of their first conception, new treatment methods and hospital design concepts emerged and the Kirkbride plan was eventually discarded. Many existing Kirkbride buildings maintained a central place in the institutions which began within their walls, but by the end of the 20th century most had been completely abandoned or demolished. A few have managed to survive into the 21st century intact and still in use, but many that survive sit abandoned and decaying—their mysterious grandeur intensified by their derelict condition. More...
Dr. Thomas Story Kirkbride was a founding member of the Association of Medical Superintendents of American Institutions for the Insane (AMSAII)—forerunner of the American Psychiatric Association—serving first as secretary, then later as president. Through this association and in his writings, Kirkbride promoted a standardized method of asylum construction and mental health treatment, popularly known as the Kirkbride Plan, which significantly influenced the entire American asylum community during his lifetime. More...
Latest Blog Entries
Help Save the Fergus Falls Kirkbride Building
05 Nov 2014 -- The Friends of the Kirkbride are trying to raise $700,000 to cover a funding for redevelopment of the Fergus Falls Kirkbride. Read more about the story here: Fergus Falls Citizens Group to Raise $700K to Save Kirkbride... read more
Bryce Wing to be Demolished
07 Apr 2014 -- I had been hoping that when the University of Alabama took over the Bryce Hospital campus that they would preserve the entire Kirkbride building there. Unfortunately, they’re planning on tearing down at least one wing to make room for a new performing arts center... read more
1000 Jackson State Hospital Graves Discovered
13 Feb 2014 -- 1000 unmarked graves have been discovered on the former grounds of Jackson State Hospital in Jackson, Mississippi according to the Clarion Ledger: Discovery of Graves Affects UMMC Parking Plan. The graves belong to deceased patients of the hospital... read more
Northampton State Hospital Exhibit
12 Feb 2014 -- There’s a special exhibit focusing on Northampton State Hospital at Historic Northampton in (where else?) Northampton, Massachusetts. “Vanished: the Hospital on the Hill” will run from February 8th till March 7th and features photographs by Stan Sherer and text by J... read more
Prints of Kirkbride buildings are now available.
Added a Saint Elizabeths Hospital page.
Added an Harrisburg State Hospital page.
Added chapters 51-60 to Kirkbride's book.
Added a Cherokee State Hospital page.
Expanded the Weston State Hospital gallery.
- Athens State Hospital
Architect: Levi T. Scofield
Location: Athens, Ohio
- Buffalo State Hospital
Architect: Henry Hobson Richardson
Location: Buffalo, New York
- Cherokee State Hospital
Architect: Henry F. Liebbe
Location: Cherokee, Iowa
- Clarinda State Hospital
Architect: Foster & Liebbe
Location: Clarinda, Iowa
- Danvers State Hospital
Architect: Nathaniel J. Bradlee
Location: Danvers, Massachusetts
- Dixmont State Hospital
Architect: J.R. Kerr
Location: Dixmont Township, Pennsylvania
- Fergus Falls State Hospital
Architect: Warren Dunnell
Location: Fergus Falls, Minnesota
- Greystone Park State Hospital
Architect: Samuel Sloan
Location: Morristown, New Jersey
- Hudson River State Hospital
Architect: Frederick Clarke Withers
Location: Poughkeepsie, New York
- Independence State Hospital
Architect: Stephen Vaughn Shipman
Location: Independence, Iowa
- Northampton State Hospital
Architect: Jonathan Preston
Location: Northampton, Massachusetts
- Saint Elizabeths Hospital
Architect: Thomas U. Walters
Location: Washington, DC
- Taunton State Hospital
Architect: Elbridge Boyden
Location: Taunton, Massachusetts
- Traverse City State Hospital
Architect: Gordon W. Lloyd
Location: Traverse City, Michigan
- Weston State Hospital
Architect: R. Snowden Andrews
Location: Weston, West Virginia
- Worcester State Hospital
Architect: George Dutton Rand
Location: Worcester, Massachusetts
- Photo Prints
Prints of selected Kirkbride photographs on this site are available for purchase in 8x10 and 11x14 formats.
Please note that in some instances these buildings are off-limits to the general public and permission must be obtained if you wish to access the property and/or take photographs.